Karolina Duzniak and her fiancee Ola Głowacka drive away from Kozy.
Kozy, Poland (CNN) — Karolina Duzniak has lived within the drowsy, tree-dotted Polish village of Kozy for 26 years. However she doesn’t really feel herself till she will get into her automotive every morning, shuts the door and drives away.
“I choose huge cities,” she says, reflecting on her each day journey to work in close by Bielsko-Biala, an industrial city sprawl close to the border with the Czech Republic. “I come again house and I really feel unhealthy. It’s not me.
“On a regular basis I disguise one thing.”
Duzniak is a assured, amicable profession coach with a associate of 10 years, however she has good cause to cover one necessary facet of her persona. She is homosexual, and homosexual individuals are not welcome in Kozy. An official doc reminds them of that.
Final yr, the encompassing Bielsko county — which incorporates Kozy and dozens of different cities and villages, however not Bielsko-Biala — handed a decision supporting “conventional household values” and rejecting the LGBT group for “undermining the idea of a household mannequin.”
“We encourage younger individuals to start out households that are by their essence a pure atmosphere for self-realization,” the textual content reads. Households “formed by the centuries-old heritage of Christianity,” and that are “so necessary for the great improvement of our homeland.”
The area just isn’t an exception. In little over a yr, a whole bunch of areas throughout Poland — overlaying a few third of the nation, and greater than 10 million residents — have remodeled themselves, in a single day, into so-called “LGBT-free zones.”
These areas, the place opposition to LGBT “ideology” is symbolically written into regulation at state and native ranges, have put Poland on a collision course with the European Union and compelled sister cities, allies and watchdogs throughout the continent to recoil in condemnation. Native legal guidelines have been contested, and a few communities that launched such laws have seen their EU funding blocked.
However the impression is felt most painfully — and each day — by the homosexual, lesbian and transgender Poles who stay in cities that would favor they merely weren’t there.
“I’m extra confused. For the primary time in my life I’m very, very scared,” Duzniak says, reflecting on the decision as she walks CNN round her hometown together with her girlfriend Ola Głowacka.
Kozy — which interprets as “Goats” — claims to be Poland’s most populous village. It’s a slumbering place with a neat, well-maintained park, a number of church buildings and an 18th century palace that after welcomed native the Aristocracy and now serves as a cultural heart and library.
However Duzniak tries to not discuss her associate when she’s in her hometown. “Individuals would speak behind our again,” she says. “It’s unusual for them. It’s one thing horrible. It’s unnormal, unnatural. They are saying that, generally.” Issues are simpler in Bielsko-Biala, the place Głowacka lives, and the place anti-LGBT intolerance has not been adopted in regulation.
As an alternative, the love between the 2 is noticeable solely of their glances, half-smiles and the engagement that they hold well-hidden when strolling via Kozy. Whereas they briefly hug once they meet one another, they’d by no means — ever — maintain fingers.
“After all not!” Duzniak says with a dismissive chortle, as if the idea had been so outlandish as to not warrant a thought. “It’s not doable right here,” provides Głowacka.
Poland is a rustic nonetheless steeped in Catholic customized and fiercely, reflexively defensive of its nationwide custom. Round nine in 10 Poles determine as Roman Catholics, and about 40% attend Sunday mass weekly.
Elements of its notably conservative, rural areas to the southeast have by no means embraced LGBT individuals; however now, homophobic rhetoric is uttered by the state and preached in church buildings, and hostility on the streets is boiling over.
Throughout a reelection marketing campaign partially dominated by the problem earlier this yr, incumbent President Andrzej Duda — a staunch ally of US President Donald Trump — warned of an LGBT “ideology” extra harmful to Poland than communism. The governing social gathering’s highly effective chief, Jarosław Kaczyński, has claimed LGBT individuals “threaten the Polish state.” Its new schooling minister stated final yr that “these individuals are not equal to regular individuals.” And final yr, Krakow’s archbishop bemoaned that the nation was under siege from a “rainbow plague.”
“The church tells (worshippers) we’re harmful,” says Głowacka. The couple say that just a few years in the past, “individuals would simply ignore us.” However not anymore; the surge of anti-LGBT rhetoric from governing officers has been met by quite a lot of high-profile acts of violence at LGBT occasions, pro-government media incessantly parrots the populist authorities, and Poland has now change into the worst EU country for LGBT people in Europe based on continental watchdog ILGA-Europe.
When a massive EU study earlier this yr discovered that LGBT+ individuals on the continent usually really feel safer than they did 5 years in the past, Poland was the evident exception; two-thirds of homosexual, lesbian and transgender Poles stated intolerance and acts of violence in opposition to them had elevated, whereas 4 in 5 stated they keep away from sure locations for concern of being assaulted — the best price in Europe.
And final yr, a pro-government journal was met with an offended backlash after handing out “LGBT-free” stickers to readers — permitting them to imitate their lawmakers by proclaiming that their houses, autos or companies welcome solely heterosexual individuals.
“My mum on a regular basis asks me, are you OK? Are you with Ola?” Duzniak says. “On a regular basis, she rings or texts,” anxious about her daughter’s security.
The couple have prevented the worst, for now. However neither Duzniak or Głowacka, who put on engagement rings although same-sex marriage and civil partnerships are unlawful in Poland, can keep away from the each day stress of being who they’re.
“It’s like I am simply much less human than the opposite individuals,” says Głowacka. “They will maintain fingers, they’ve youngsters. Simply because they’re like they’re, they’re higher. However why?”
“Lots of people know me,” provides Duzniak, referring to her neighbors within the village of 12,000 individuals. “I’ll by no means inform them (that I’m homosexual),” she says. “However I do know that they know.”
‘John Paul II wouldn’t approve’
Homophobia exists not simply on lots of Poland’s streets, however within the closed-door council conferences the place the liberty of LGBT individuals is debated; and the place a visceral, deep-rooted and alarmingly informal sentiment is laid naked.
In Swidnik, a small city close to the Ukrainian border, councilors painted gays and lesbians as “radical individuals striving for a cultural revolution,” accusing them of wishing to “assault freedom of speech (and) the innocence of kids.” In Nowa Sarzyna, one other jap city, homosexuality was labelled “opposite to the legal guidelines of nature” and a violation of “human dignity.” And within the Lublin province, a sprawling space of jap Poland house to greater than 2 million residents, LGBT rights campaigners had been condemned by native lawmakers for in search of “the annihilation of values formed by the Catholic church.”
It’s from these debates, and amid a relentless eruption of anti-LGBT rhetoric from the nation’s populist authorities and spiritual leaders, that the native legal guidelines emerge.
The nation’s pursuit of illiberal, anti-LGBT laws embellished as a protection of conventional values has additionally spurred comparisons with Russia, a usually unwelcome connection to attract in Poland; Moscow’s 2013 regulation banning LGBT “propaganda” relied on lots of the identical arguments, and fostered the same international outcry.
However not like Russia, the place the worldwide group has little sway, Poland has been thrust right into a battle with Brussels over the laws. At the least six cities have misplaced EU funding over their adoption of “LGBT-free” payments. Within the face of such international condemnation, the ruling Regulation and Justice Occasion has furiously rejected the “LGBT-free” characterization; when US presidential candidate Joe Biden condemned the areas final month, one Polish lawmaker retorted angrily that it was an LGBT activist who had used the label, and that he would stand trial for doing so.
The Polish authorities didn’t reply to CNN’s requests for remark for this story.
“Nationalism and Catholicism are very related in Poland,” explains Tomek Zuber, a younger homosexual man dwelling in Czechowice-Dziedzice — a bigger city just some miles from Kozy that additionally lies inside the wider “LGBT-free zone” of Bielsko.
At a sq. within the city heart, a statue of Pope John Paul II appears to be like upon the church Zuber used to attend as a schoolboy. The late Pope, an icon who evokes nearly sacred adoration amongst many older Poles, wears a shy smile on his face, his arms outstretched as if he had been about to embrace passersby in a hug. The pontiff was born just some cities to the east, and is revered for giving Poles hope through the period of martial regulation — however his staunch opposition to homosexuality widened the chasm between many LGBT individuals and the church.
“His phrases are used for not giving LGBT individuals rights,” Zuber says. “‘John Paul II wouldn’t approve,’” he provides, imitating the admonitions of conservative Poles.
These classes are discovered from an early age. At college in close by Katowice, Zuber stated his principal issued a warning to all college students earlier than their final-year promenade: “No consuming, no smoking (and) no same-sex dancing.” He and his classmates rallied in opposition to the rule and, with the assistance of a few of their mother and father, received it overturned.
“I had a part the place I used to be a very Catholic and non secular individual,” Zuber says. “However in the long run … the Catholic church doesn’t appear to me prefer it’s true to many of the teachings they declare to comply with.”
The “LGBT-free zone” he lives in is a daily reminder. “The zones themselves don’t have any authorized energy, they’re principally symbolic,” he notes. No indicators go up in a single day; no companies change into instantly empowered to refuse customized. “(However) it encourages the opposite-minded individuals to talk out in opposition to us, and be extra lively.”
Simply two weeks earlier than assembly with CNN, Zuber stated he overheard an aged woman say she was disgusted by his rainbow tote bag.
“It will increase the concern,” he says.
What drives so many areas to undertake a invoice that sends concern via lots of their residents? “The curiosity of communities (is) to not defend romantic, emotional relationships, however the relationships which can be fruitful,” Nikodem Bernaciak, an lawyer whose agency wrote a template for an “LGBT-free” decision that has since been adopted by dozens of Polish cities, tells CNN in a cellphone interview. His group, the Ordo Iuris Institute for Authorized Tradition, is despised amongst many Polish LGBT activists for its distinguished function in driving the nationwide backlash in opposition to LGBT rights.
“Casual relationships usually are not as robust as marriage, so the state chooses the sort of relationship that’s extra useful.”
“The household must be protected in opposition to every kind of threats,” Bernaciak says, explaining the idea of his group’s decision. He argues that its wording is “constructive” and doesn’t point out LGBT individuals particularly, which critics say is merely an try to evade authorized challenges.
Others, just like the Bielsko area, select as an alternative to jot down their very own resolutions that extra immediately single out these campaigning for equal rights for LGBT individuals. The Bielsko council refused a number of requests to touch upon their reasoning for passing the invoice, telling CNN they don’t talk about the resolutions they enact.
However the message to LGBT individuals in Poland has been clear. “The Polish authorities used to make use of immigrants and the migration disaster as their scapegoat,” says Mathias Wasik, director of applications on the New York and London-based LGBT+ monitoring group All Out — considered one of many human rights teams watching Poland from overseas. “Now, they’ve discovered the LGBT+ group as the subsequent scapegoat.”
“The rhetoric they’re listening to from the federal government, from the pro-government media, from the church — all of that reveals them, you don’t belong right here.”
‘He informed us we had been pedophiles’
For just a few hours on one gloriously sunny latest Saturday, the scene in Katowice resembles another European metropolis.
Within the bustling and extra liberal southern location, rainbow flags flutter beneath a baby-blue sky. Revelers from the area, together with Zuber, have gathered for the town’s third annual Satisfaction parade.
The occasion hardly rivals occasions in London, Madrid or Berlin. Authorities estimate 200 individuals are current — and the gang is dwarfed by 700 law enforcement officials, some in riot gear, who tightly encompass the festivities.
However the parade supplies consolation. “It offers this sense of dwelling in a standard metropolis, in a standard nation, the place we don’t have nationalists wanting us to be gone,” Zuber says, after marching previous the college during which he got here to phrases along with his sexuality — and which tried to ban him from dancing with one other man.
Dominika Danska got here to the occasion together with her mom, younger sister and 11-year-old brother. “We need to present him that LGBT individuals are regular,” she explains.
Hours earlier, she was on a prepare with a dozen others, travelling to Satisfaction from “LGBT-free zones” round Bielsko-Biala. Because the prepare approached Katowice, many turned into their Satisfaction apparel. Their rainbow socks, flags and T-shirts with slogans emerged from plain baggage. Pins had been connected. One younger couple went to the toilet to place make-up on, a transfer that will be unthinkable again at house. Few attendees needed to threat boarding the carriage in rainbow colours.
However even earlier than arriving on the parade’s place to begin, the group was reminded of the each day risks they face. A automotive pulled over, and the motive force shouted “F**okay faggots” out of the window.
It’s the primary insult of many. “He informed us we had been pedophiles. He informed me to not smile or he’d take my flag,” Danska says. Moments later, a person walks previous, shouting and theatrically pulling his youngsters in the wrong way as if to guard them from the group. An aged woman weighs in, telling the group to go away.
“Two individuals love one another and so they name them pedophiles simply because they’re totally different,” Danska’s mom says. “That is onerous. It’s onerous.”
Satisfaction parades have taken on a tangible pressure in Poland since violence at Bialystok final yr, the place an occasion was overrun by nationalists throwing rocks and bottles.
“I really feel unhealthy in Poland,” says David Kufel, an 18-year-old attendee on the occasion. “The President says I’m not human.
“I’ve one pal who was kicked out of his house as a result of he was homosexual. I don’t need to stay on this nation,” he says. “I simply don’t need to need to battle on a regular basis, simply after I exit of my home.”
Even in Poland’s bigger cities, the antipathy is rarely distant. At one counter-protest close to the parade, anti-LGBT activists arrange a makeshift stall to assemble signatures for a petition in opposition to LGBT occasions. They introduced an enormous speaker that performs lengthy homophobic monologues denouncing the LGBT group as “deviant” and “harmful.” A lot of these passing by cease to signal the petition. At instances, a line varieties.
“In Poland, we have now a civil conflict between LGBT and regular, conservative individuals,” says Grzegorz Frejno, the 23-year-old who co-organized the protest along with his spouse. “We need to cease Satisfaction parades.”
“We don’t need our youngsters to see that, to see the bare individuals on the road,” his spouse Anna provides, gesturing in direction of a small group of clothed revelers doing the macarena close by. She refers to LGBT activists as coming from “the darkish facet,” and says their petition has garnered 5,000 signatures in a single afternoon, far outnumbering these celebrating on the occasion.
A number of of those that got here to assist the anti-LGBT gathering informed CNN they determine as Polish nationalists. Some put on excessive black boots and T-shirts adorned with slogans written in Fraktur, the previous German typeface favored by Jap European far-right teams. Just a few complained about “Antifa” infiltrating Poland’s streets among the many protesters.
“I’m disturbed. For them, anti-conception and abortion are the identical factor. They’re speaking about murdering individuals,” says Patryk Grabowiecki, a tall man with a shaven head, sporting suspenders and black boots with white laces — basic identifiers of Jap European far-right nationalism.
The gaggle of petitioners briefly and bitterly have interaction with Satisfaction marchers, earlier than police intervene. Danska wearily says that partaking with the opposition is “pointless.”
“After all I wouldn’t like for somebody to attempt to damage me, to beat me. However I’m ready for that — I’ve this pepper spray,” she says, displaying an merchandise she retains as a final resort. “I don’t need to use it.”
‘We’re the general public enemy’
A day later, beneath a colorless gray sky, locals within the southern village of Istebna filter into Sunday mass.
The village, surrounded by mountains and strolling distance from each the Czech Republic and Slovakia, is house to only over 5,000 individuals. However since its “LGBT-free” standing was deemed unconstitutional and annulled by an area courtroom in July, the dozy city has been thrust into the center of Poland’s battle over homosexual rights.
The courtroom discovered that claims the zones goal an LGBT “ideology” — and never LGBT individuals themselves — flip “a blind eye to actuality.” The designation “harms LGBT individuals and strengthens their sense of risk,” it said.
Campaigners had been overjoyed by the ruling. However activists in Istebna are already working to regain the “LGBT-free” label, and Sunday morning is a perfect time to rally assist.
“Individuals listed here are in opposition to the (LGBT) ideology,” says Jan Legierski. He spends hours standing within the drizzle exterior the church accumulating signatures, lobbying for the courtroom’s resolution to be reversed.
“I don’t need this to have an effect on my grandchildren,” he says, insisting that “youngsters and future generations usually are not indoctrinated, and that they don’t seem to be wicked.”
The church hosted 4 back-to-back packed plenty that morning. Almost everybody attending — older individuals, kids, youngsters — signed the paperwork. Legierski began the small-scale motion with round a dozen mates, impressed by the resolutions being handed throughout the nation.
The battle ongoing in Istebna, and numerous cities prefer it, is quickly pushing Poland right into a geopolitical quagmire.
“There isn’t a place for LGBTI-free zones within the EU or wherever else,” Helena Dalli, the European Commissioner for Equality, tells CNN. Dalli has rejected town-twinning functions and pulled EU funding for quite a lot of areas that pursued the designation, whereas Poland has been publicly condemned by EU Fee President Ursula von der Leyen.
“The claimed ‘LGBTI ideology’ that these charters supposedly handle is just a veil to masks the underlying discrimination,” Dalli says. “Poland joined the European Union on a voluntary foundation and should now respect the EU treaties and basic rights.”
However contained in the Istebna clergy home, deputy priest Grzegorz Strządała defends his city’s sentiment. “There are particular communities, societies, teams on this planet who attempt to impose a special mind-set, which is in battle with pure regulation,” he says, telling CNN he’s snug along with his parishioners supporting the petition exterior. He says the organizers can rely on his assist.
“Jesus liked everyone, and this has not modified,” he provides. “Nevertheless, generally individuals use sure phrases for sure supposedly Christian ideas, however actually they’re speaking about one thing fully totally different.
“The phrases love, acceptance, dignity, freedom — these phrases within the context of scripture have a selected which means. In dialogue with LGBT individuals, we used the identical phrases, however we imply one thing completely totally different.”
Strządała’s feedback reveal the evident chasm between LGBT Poles and plenty of of their staunchly Catholic compatriots — an abyss so extensive, it could really feel as in the event that they’re talking totally different languages.
Activists, together with Bartosz Staszewski — arguably Poland’s most distinguished LGBT rights campaigner — are decided to bridge that hole. Staszewski’s long-running try to focus on “LGBT-free zones” by plastering warning indicators round each relevant area has drawn nationwide consideration, and made him the goal of anti-LGBT organizations. Staszewski, together with different LGBT activists in Poland, is dealing with authorized motion over his demonstrations.
“This can be a witch hunt, the place we’re the victims,” Staszewski tells CNN. “We’re second-category residents. It’s by no means occurred earlier than — we had been merely not the topic. And now we’re the topic, we’re the general public enemy.
“All of them are in opposition to us.”
Homophobic laws and resolutions have pressured many Poles to choose: depart city or keep quiet.
However the wave of resolutions has impressed many extra to hitch Staszewski and discover their voices. Zuber, Duzniak and Głowacka rely themselves amongst these newfound activists, unusual Poles for whom merely present is an act of defiance.
“To be sincere, I can transfer to an even bigger city,” Głowacka says. “However there are various people who find themselves youthful, and can’t simply transfer out from their households, and fogeys, and college.
“I feel we have now a job to do right here.”